Essential references

ALLEN, J. de V. 1981. Swahili culture and the nature of East coast settlement. International Journal of African Historical Studies 14.2: 306-334.
CHITTICK, N. 1974. Kilwa: an Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.
– 1984. Manda: excavations at an island port on the Kenya Coast. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.
DONLEY-REID, L. 1990. A structuring structure: the swahili house, in S. Kent (ed.) New Directions in Archaeology: 114-126. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DUARTE, R. 1993. Northern Mozambique in the Swahili World: an archaeological approach (Studies in African Archaeology 4). Uppsala: Central Board of National Antiquities.
FLURY, S. 1922. The kufic inscriptions of Kizimkazi Mosque, Zanzibar, 1107 A.D. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 21: 257-264.
FREEMAN-GRENVILLE, G.S.P. 1962 The East African Coast (select documents from the first to the earlier nineteenth century). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
GARLAKE, P. 1966. The Early Islamic Architecture of the East African Coast. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.
HORTON, M. 1996. Shanga. The archaeology of a Muslim trading community on the coast of East Africa. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.
HORTON, M. & J. MIDDLETON. 2000. The Swahili. Oxford: Blackwell.
JAMA, A. 1996. The Origins and Development of Mogadishu AD 1000 to 1850 (Studies in African Archaeology 12). Uppsala: Uppsala University Department of Archaeology.
KERVRAN, M. 1990. La mosquée al-Khamis à Bahrain: son histoire et ses inscriptions. Archéologie Islamique 1: 7-51.
KIRKMAN, J. 1954. The Arab City of Gedi: Excavations at the Great Mosque, architecture and finds. London: Oxford University Press.
– 1963. Gedi, the palace. The Hague: Mouton.
– 1964. Men and monuments on the East African coast. London: Lutterworth Press.
– 1966. Ungwana on the Tana. The Hague: Mouton.
– 1974. Fort Jesus: A Portuguese Fortress on the East African Coast. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
MASAO F. & H. MUTORO. 1990. La côte d’Afrique orientale et les Comores, in Histoire Générale de l’Afrique 3: L’Afrique du VIIe au XIe siècle: 625-656. Paris: UNESCO.
PRADINES, S. 2004. Fortifications et urbanisation en Afrique orientale (Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 58, British Archaeological Reports). Oxford: Archaeopress.
– 2009. L’île de Sanjé ya Kati (Kilwa, Tanzanie). Un mythe Shirâzi bien réel. Azania 44.1: 49-73.
– 2010. Gedi, une cité portuaire swahilie. Islam médiéval en Afrique orientale (Monographies d’archéologie islamique). Cairo: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.
REVOIL, G. 1885 & 1888. Voyage chez les Bénadirs, les Çomalis et les Bayouns, en 1882-1883, in Le Tour du Monde: 1-80; 129-208 and 385-416.
SHERIFF A. 2002. The spatial dichotomy of Swahili towns: The case of Zanzibar in the nineteenth century. Azania 37: 63-81.
SINCLAIR P.J.J., J.M.F. MORAIS, L. ADAMOWICZ & R.T. DUARTE. 1993. A perspective on archaeological research in Mozambique, in T. Shaw, P.J.J. Sinclair, B.W. Andah & A. Okpoko (ed.) The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns: 409-431. London: Routledge.
VERIN, P. 1975. Les Echelles Anciennes du Commerce sur les côtes nord de Madagascar. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Université de Lille III.
WILSON, T. 1978. The Monumental Architecture and Archaeology, North of the Tana River. Report prepared for National Museums of Kenya.
– 1980. The Monumental Architecture and Archaeology of the Central and Southern Kenyan Coast. Report prepared for National Museums of Kenya.
WRIGHT, H. 1984. Early Seafarers of the Comoro Islands: the Dembeni Phase of the IXth-Xth centuries AD. Azania 19: 13-39.

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Kenya, Tanzania, Comoros